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The Applied Individual Differences Research Team

 

About Us

The Applied Individual Differences Research Team aims to research how people differ from one another. The fact that we are all different is obvious, however, how and why these are the questions that we are trying to answer. From looking at unique patters of individuals to group identifications and actions, nothing is off limit. Follow us on our Twitter page for regular updates and conversations.

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Biographies

Personality and Individual differences research team consists of accomplished and well known academics in the their respected research fields.

Dr Neil Dagnall

Dr Neil Dagnall is a Reader in Psychology at Manchester Metropolitan University. His research focuses on applied aspects of cognition, particularly thinking style and cognitive-perceptual factors that influence decision-making and behaviour change. This includes an interest in scientifically unsubstantiated beliefs (i.e., belief in the paranormal, conspiratorial ideation, pseudo-science, and urban legends). Recently, these research strands informed the development of personalised health care assessments as part of a KTP with Nuffield Health. Neil has also an interest in psychometric scale development and evaluation, which has resulted in recent publications examining the structure and best use of established psychological measures. Relatedly, Neil works in the area of performance, predominantly the development of non-cognitive skills. This activity has resulted in associations with notable sporting organisations. Neil’s work is acknowledged internationally as demonstrated by his good publication record, a history of attracting funding (e.g., Bial Research Fellowship), and an outstanding record of public engagement and knowledge exchange. Neil is a Certified BPS Occupational Test User of Ability (Former Level A) and Personality (Former Level B).

Dr Andrew Denovan

Dr Andrew Denovan is a Senior Lecturer in Psychology at Manchester Metropolitan University. His research primarily centres on aspects of differential psychology, including personality traits (e.g., Dark Triad, resilience) and parapsychological beliefs. Andrew has an active interest in the development and evaluation of psychological measures, and research methods including psychometrics and statistical modelling. This has resulted in a number of recent publications focusing on the evaluation of psychological scales. His research is also concerned with wellbeing, stress, psychopathology and the student experience in higher education. Andrew possesses a strong publication record and a good record of knowledge exchange. Andrew is a Certified BPS Occupational Test User of Ability (Former Level A) and Personality (Former Level B).

Dr Ken Drinkwater

Dr Ken Drinkwater is senior lecturer in Psychology and Parapsychology. His main study areas are around Memory and Part set cuing effects, I.Q. Assessment of adults with learning disabilities, and the usefulness of the Ravens Progressive Matrices as a predictor of ability. His PhD was in Paranormal Belief measurements. 
He has been research active for several years and have contributed to many published works. He is a am founder of the film club at MMU and have recently set up a paranormal group that holds regular weekly meetings to discuss all things paranormal, which promotes student engagement and interest in this interesting area of research.
His research interests are in Parapsychology, (Paranormal Belief, Urban legends and Conspiracy Theories), Memory and part set cuing effects, neuropsychology and deficits caused by TBI. Dr Drinkwater is a well know academic in Parapsychology (including Paranormal experiences, Belief in paranormal, the anomalous, Conspiracy theories and Reality Testing), Neuropsychology (Head injuries/Parkinson's/Epilepsy), Psychological/ IQ/Intelligence and Ability measurement/Testing, Cognition: Perception, Attention and Memory Projective methods.

Elena Hill-Artamonova PhD Candidate

Elena Hill-Artamonova is a PhD candidate at Manchester Metropolitan University. Previously she achieved BA in Anthropology, BSc in Psychology, MA in Political Science, MSc in Social Psychology. She has several published papers on the subject of politics. Currently she is researching cross-cultural difference in UK and Russian samples on Dark Triad and Big Five, in relation to prejudice and aggression.

Chris Williams PhD candidate

Chris is a PhD student looking at Dark Triad and expectancy biases. He contributed to creation of hopelessness scale, along side of Neil and Andrew.

 

Publications

The Applied Individual Differences Research Team has been published in a number of leading journals and periodicals. We have been privileged to collaborate with some influential senior academics and leading experts in the field of applied Individual difference research.

Featured Works

K. Drinkwater, A. Denovan, N. Dagnall (2020). Lucid Dreaming, Nightmares, and Sleep Paralysis: Associations With Reality Testing Deficits and Paranormal Experience/Belief. Frontiers in Psychology. 

K. Drinkwater, A. Denovan, N. Dagnall (2020). Dark Triad Traits and Sleep-Related Constructs: An Opinion Piece. Frontiers in Psychology. 


N. Dagnall, A. Denovan, K. Papageorgiou, P. Clough, A. Parker, K. Drinkwater (2019). Psychometric Assessment of Shortened Mental Toughness Questionnaires (MTQ): Factor Structure of the MTQ-18 and the MTQ-10. Frontiers in Psychology. 

N. Dagnall, A. Denovan, K. Drinkwater, A. Parker (2019). An Evaluation of the Belief in Science Scale. Frontiers in Psychology. 10, 

KA. Papageorgiou, A. Denovan, N. Dagnall (2019). The positive effect of narcissism on depressive symptoms through mental toughness: Narcissism may be a dark trait but it does help with seeing the world less grey. European Psychiatry. 55, pp.74-79. 

A. Denovan, N. Dagnall, G. Lofthouse (2018). Neuroticism and somatic complaints: Concomitant effects of rumination and worry. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy. 47(4), pp.431-445. 

KA. Papageorgiou, M. Malanchini, A. Denovan, PJ. Clough, N. Shakeshaft, et al. (2018). Longitudinal associations between narcissism, mental toughness and school achievement. Personality and Individual Differences. 131, pp.105-110. 

AM. Denovan, N. Dagnall, K. Drinkwater, A. Parker (2018). Latent Profile Analysis of Schizotypy and Paranormal Belief: Associations with Probabilistic Reasoning Performance. Frontiers in Psychology. 9(35), ​​

Journal articles

Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil (2020). Eye-closure & the retrieval of item-specific information in recognition memory. Elsevier. 77. 

Walsh, R Stephen; Denovan, Andrew; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Reddington, Sean; Dagnall, Neil (2020). Predicting GP visits: A multinomial logistic regression investigating GP visits amongst a cohort of UK patients living with Myalgic encephalomyelitis. BMC Family Practice. Biomed Central. 21.

Dagnall, Neil; Drinkwater, Kenneth G; O’Keeffe, Ciarán; Ventola, Annalisa; Laythe, Brian; Jawer, Michael A; Massullo, Brandon; Caputo, Giovanni B; Houran, James (2020). Things That Go Bump in the Literature: An Environmental Appraisal of “Haunted Houses”. Frontiers in Psychology. 11, pp.13-28.

Drinkwater, Kenneth G; Denovan, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil (2020). Lucid Dreaming, Nightmares, and Sleep Paralysis: Associations With Reality Testing Deficits and Paranormal Experience/Belief. Frontiers in Psychology. 11.

Drinkwater, Kenneth Graham; Dagnall, Neil; Denovan, Andrew (2020). Dark Triad Traits and Sleep-Related Constructs: An Opinion Piece. Frontiers in Psychology. 11. 


Denovan, N. Dagnall, A. Parker (2020). Predictors of Hearing Electronic Voice Phenomena in Random Noise: Schizotypy, Fantasy Proneness, and Paranormal Beliefs. Journal of Parapsychology. 84(1), pp.96-113.


KG. Drinkwater, N. Dagnall, A. Denovan, N. Neave (2020). Psychometric assessment of the Generic Conspiracist Beliefs Scale. PLOS ONE. 15(3), pp.e0230365-e0230365.

A. Denovan, N. Dagnall, L. Monk (2019). Schizotypy and Risk-Taking Behaviour: the Contribution of Urgency.Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment. 


AM. Denovan, N. Dagnall, A. Macaskill, K. Papageorgiou (2019). Future time perspective, positive emotion and academic engagement: a longitudinal study. Studies in Higher Education. 

N. Dagnall, A. Denovan, K. Drinkwater, A. Parker (2019). An Evaluation of the Belief in Science Scale. Frontiers in Psychology. 10, 

K. Drinkwater, N. Dagnall, A. Denovan, A. Parker (2019). The Moderating Effect of Mental Toughness: Perception of Risk and Belief in the Paranormal. Psychol Rep. 122(1), pp.268-287. 

A. Denovan, N. Dagnall, K. Dhingra, S. Grogan (2019). Evaluating the Perceived Stress Scale among UK university students: implications for stress measurement and management. Studies in Higher Education. 44(1), pp.120-133. 


KA. Papageorgiou, A. Denovan, N. Dagnall (2019). The positive effect of narcissism on depressive symptoms through mental toughness: Narcissism may be a dark trait but it does help with seeing the world less grey. European Psychiatry. 55, pp.74-79. 

A. Denovan, N. Dagnall, G. Lofthouse (2018). Neuroticism and somatic complaints: Concomitant effects of rumination and worry. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy. 47(4), pp.431-445. 

KA. Papageorgiou, M. Malanchini, A. Denovan, PJ. Clough, N. Shakeshaft, et al. (2018). Longitudinal associations between narcissism, mental toughness and school achievement. Personality and Individual Differences. 131, pp.105-110. 

K. Drinkwater, A. Denovan, N. Dagnall, A. Parker (2018). The Australian sheep-goat scale: An evaluation of factor structure and convergent validity. Frontiers in Psychology. 9(AUG), 

NA. Dagnall, AM. Denovan, A. Parker, KG. Drinkwater, RS. Walsh (2018). Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Inventory of Personality Organization-Reality Testing Subscale. Frontiers in Psychology. 9(1116), 

K. Drinkwater, N. Dagnall, AM. Denovan, A. Parker, P. Clough (2018). Predictors and Associates of Problem–Reaction–Solution: Statistical Bias, Emotion-Based Reasoning, and Belief in the Paranormal. SAGE Open. 8(1), pp.1-11. 

AM. Denovan, N. Dagnall, K. Drinkwater, A. Parker (2018). Latent Profile Analysis of Schizotypy and Paranormal Belief: Associations with Probabilistic Reasoning Performance. Frontiers in Psychology. 9(35), 

A. Denovan, A. Macaskill (2017). Stress, resilience and leisure coping among university students: applying the broaden-and-build theory. Leisure Studies. 36(6), pp.852-865. 

AM. Denovan, N. Dagnall, K. Drinkwater, A. Parker (2017). Perception of Risk and Terrorism-Related Behavior Change: Dual Influences of Probabilistic Reasoning and Reality Testing. Frontiers in Psychology. 8, 

K. Drinkwater, A. Denovan, N. Dagnall, A. Parker (2017). An Assessment of the Dimensionality and Factorial Structure of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale. Frontiers in Psychology. 8, 

A. Denovan, A. Macaskill (2017). Building resilience to stress through leisure activities: a qualitative analysis.Annals of Leisure Research. 20(4), pp.446-466. 

N. Dagnall, A. Denovan, K. Drinkwater, A. Parker, P. Clough (2017). Statistical Bias and Endorsement of Conspiracy Theories. Applied Cognitive Psychology. 31(4), pp.368-378. 

E. Lawton, E. Brymer, P. Clough, A. Denovan (2017). The Relationship between the Physical Activity Environment, Nature Relatedness, Anxiety, and the Psychological Well-being Benefits of Regular Exercisers. Frontiers in Psychology. 8(JUN), 

N. Dagnall, A. Denovan, K. Drinkwater, A. Parker, PJ. Clough (2017). Urban Legends and Paranormal Beliefs: The Role of Reality Testing and Schizotypy. Frontiers in Psychology. 8(JUN), 

NA. Dagnall, A. Denovan, K. Drinkwater, A. Parker, P. Clough (2016). Towards a better understanding of the relationship between belief in the paranormal and statistical bias: The potential role of schizotypy.Frontiers in Psychology. 

N. Dagnall, K. Drinkwater, A. Denovan, A. Parker, K. Rowley (2016). Misperception of Chance, Conjunction, Framing Effects and Belief in the Paranormal: A Further Evaluation. Applied Cognitive Psychology. 30(3), pp.409-419. 

AM. Denovan, A. Macaskill (2016). Stress and Subjective Well-Being Among First Year UK Undergraduate Students. Journal of Happiness Studies. 

N. Dagnall, K. Drinkwater, A. Parker, A. Denovan, M. Parton (2015). Conspiracy theory and cognitive style: A worldview. Frontiers in Psychology. 6(FEB), 

N. Dagnall, K. Drinkwater, A. Denovan, A. Parker (2015). Suggestion, belief in the paranormal, proneness to reality testing deficits, and perception of an allegedly haunted building. Journal of Parapsychology. 79(1), pp.87-104. 

A. Macaskill, A. Denovan (2014). Assessing psychological health: the contribution of psychological strengths. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling. 42(3), pp.320-337. 

A. Denovan, A. Macaskill (2013). An interpretative phenomenological analysis of stress and coping in first year undergraduates. British Educational Research Journal. 39(6), pp.1002-1024. 

A. Macaskill, A. Denovan (2013). Developing autonomous learning in first year university students using perspectives from positive psychology. Studies in Higher Education. 38(1), pp.124-142. 

E. Beaumont, C. Irons, G. Rayner, N. Dagnall (2016). Does Compassion-Focused Therapy Training for Health Care Educators and Providers Increase Self-Compassion and Reduce Self-Persecution and Self-Criticism?. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 36(1), pp.4-10. 


HJ. Irwin, N. Dagnall, K. Drinkwater (2015). Belief Inconsistency in Conspiracy Theorists. Comprehensive Psychology. 4, pp.17.CP.4.19-17.CP.4.19. 

N. Dagnall, K. Drinkwater, A. Denovan, A. Parker (2015). Suggestion, belief in the paranormal, proneness to reality testing deficits, and perception of an allegedly haunted building. Journal of Parapsychology. 79(1), pp.87-104. 

H. Irwin, N. Dagnall, K. Drinkwater (2015). The role of doublethink and other coping processes in paranormal and related beliefs. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research. 79, pp.80-96. 

N. Dagnall, K. Drinkwater, A. Parker, K. Rowley (2014). Misperception of Chance, Conjunction, Belief in the Paranormal and Reality Testing: A Reappraisal. Applied Cognitive Psychology. 28(5), pp.711-719. 

H. Irwin, K. Drinkwater, N. Dagnall (2014). Are believers in the paranormal inclined to jump to conclusions?. Australian Journal of Parapsychology. 14, pp.69-82. 

A. Parker, A. Parkin, N. Dagnall (2013). Effects of saccadic bilateral eye movements on episodic and semantic autobiographical memory fluency. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 

HJ. Irwin, N. Dagnall, K. Drinkwater (2013). Parapsychologigal experience as anomalous experience plus paranormal attribution: A questionnaire based on a new approach to measurement. Journal of Parapsychology. 77(1), pp.39-53. 

K. Drinkwater, N. Dagnall, L. Bate (2013). Into The Unknown: Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis To Explore Personal Accounts of Paranormal Experiences. The Journal of Parapsychology. 77(2), pp.281-294. 

A. Parker, N. Dagnall (2012). Effects of saccadic bilateral eye movements on memory in children and adults: an exploratory study. Brain Cogn. 78(3), pp.238-247. 

K. Drinkwater, N. Dagnall, A. Parker (2012). Reality testing, conspiracy theories, and paranormal beliefs.Journal of Parapsychology. 76(1), pp.57-77. 


A. Parker, N. Dagnall, G. Munley (2012). Encoding tasks dissociate the effects of divided attention on category-cued recall and category-exemplar generation. Exp Psychol. 59(3), pp.124-131. 

H. Irwin, N. Dagnall, K. Drinkwater (2012). Paranormal beliefs and cognitive processes underlying the formation of delusions. Australian Journal of Parapsychology. 12, pp.107-126. 

H. Irwin, N. Dagnall, K. Drinkwater (2012). Paranormal belief and biases in reasoning underlying the formation of delusions. Australian Journal of Parapsychology. 12, pp.7-21. 

N. Dagnall, K. Drinkwater, A. Parker (2011). Alien visitation, extra-terrestrial life, and paranormal beliefs. Journal of Scientific Exploration. 25(4), pp.699-720. 


N. Dagnall, K. Drinkwater, A. Parker (2011). Alien visitation, extra-terrestrial life, and paranormal beliefs. Journal of Scientific Exploration. 25(4), pp.699-720. 

N. Dagnall, A. Parker, G. Munley, K. Drinkwater (2010). Common paranormal belief dimensions. Journal of Scientific Exploration. 24(3), pp.477-494. 

A. Parker, N. Dagnall (2010). Effects of handedness and saccadic bilateral eye movements on components of autobiographical recollection. Brain Cogn. 73(2), pp.93-101. 

N. Dagnall, G. Munley, A. Parker, K. Drinkwater (2010). Paranormal belief, schizotypy, and transliminality. Journal of Parapsychology. 74(1), pp.117-141. 

N. Dagnall, K. Drinkwater, A. Parker, G. Munley (2010). Reality testing, belief in the paranormal, and urban legends. European Journal of Parapsychology. 25, pp.25-55. 

N. Dagnall, G. Munley, K. Drinkwater (2010). The relationship between belief in extra-terrestrial life, UFO-related beliefs and paranormal belief. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research. 74, pp.1-14. 

A. Parker, N. Dagnall (2009). Concreteness effects revisited: the influence of dynamic visual noise on memory for concrete and abstract words. Memory. 17(4), pp.397-410. 

N. Dagnall, A. Parker, G. Munley (2009). Assessing superstitious belief. Psychol Rep. 104(2), pp.447-454. 

N. Dagnall, A. Parker (2009). Schizotypy and false memory. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 40(1), pp.179-188. 

A. Parker, N. Dagnall (2009). Effects of retrieval practice on conceptual explicit and implicit consumer memory. Applied Cognitive Psychology. 23(2), pp.188-203. 

A. Parker, S. Buckley, N. Dagnall (2009). Reduced misinformation effects following saccadic bilateral eye movements. Brain Cogn. 69(1), pp.89-97. 

N. Dagnall, G. Munley, A. Parker (2008). Memory aberrations, transliminality, and delusional ideation. Percept Mot Skills. 106(1), pp.67-75. 

A. Parker, S. Relph, N. Dagnall (2008). Effects of bilateral eye movements on the retrieval of item, associative, and contextual information. Neuropsychology. 22(1), pp.136-145. 

N. Dagnall, A. Parker, G. Munley (2008). News Events, False Memory and Paranormal Belief. European Journal of Parapsychology. 23(2), pp.173-188. 

N. Dagnall, A. Parker, G. Munley (2008). The Effects of Part-Set Cuing on the Recall of General Knowledge Information. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology. 7(2), pp.248-265. 

N. Dagnall, A. Parker, G. Munley (2007). Effects of part-set cuing on reminiscence. Percept Mot Skills. 105(3 Pt 1), pp.1015-1022. 

N. Dagnall, A. Parker, G. Munley (2007). Effects of part-set cuing on reminiscence. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 105(3 I), pp.1015-1022. 

N. Dagnall, A. Parker, G. Munley (2007). Paranormal belief and reasoning. Personality and Individual Differences. 43(6), pp.1406-1415. 

A. Parker, N. Dagnall (2007). Effects of retrieval practice on consumer memory for brand attributes. Psychol Rep. 101(1), pp.311-318. 

N. Dagnall, A. Parker, G. Munley (2007). Social collaboration, inhibition and context. Psychol Rep. 100(3 Pt 1), pp.691-699. 

A. Parker, N. Dagnall, A-M. Coyle (2007). Environmental context effects in conceptual explicit and implicit memory. Memory. 15(4), pp.423-434. 

A. Parker, N. Dagnall (2007). Effects of bilateral eye movements on gist based false recognition in the DRM paradigm. Brain Cogn. 63(3), pp.221-225. 

N. Dagnall, A. Parker, G. Munley (2007). Superstitious Belief: Negative and Positive Superstitions. European Journal of Parapsychology. 22, pp.121-137. 

K. Drinkwater, N. Dagnall, A. Parker (2006). Effects of part-set cuing on experienced and novice chess players' reconstruction of a typical chess midgame position. Percept Mot Skills. 102(3), pp.645-653.

Book chapters

N. Dagnall, AM. Denovan (2017). Measuring mindset using psychometric tests. In: The GCSE Mindset: 40 activities for transforming student commitment, motivation and productivity. Crown House Publishing, 

AM. Denovan, L. Crust, P. Clough (2016). Resilience at Work. In: The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of the Psychology of Positivity and Strengths-Based Approaches at Work. Wiley-Blackwell, 

P. Clough, N. Dagnall (2016). The Study of Non-Cognitive Attributes in Education. In Non-cognitive Skills and Factors in Educational Attainment.

Clough, P., Oakes, S., Dagnall, N., St Clair-Thompson, H., & McGeown, S. (2016). The Study of Non-Cognitive Attributes in Education. In Non-cognitive Skills and Factors in Educational Attainment (pp. 315-329). SensePublishers. 

A. Parker, A. Parkin, N. Dagnall (2015). Parker, A., Parkin, A., & Dagnall, D. (2015). Effects of Saccadic Bilateral Eye Movements on Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory Fluency. In: T. T. Brunye, S. R. Cavanagh, & R. E. Propper (Eds), Hemispheric Bases for Emotion & Memory. Frontiers Media,

Grants

Crockett, K., Dagnall, N., Denovan, A., & McLean, D. (2020). The Insights People (KTP). Innovate UK (£263,706.64).

Dagnall, N., & Denovan, A. (2020). GMHSC Routes into AHP Evaluation. NHS Oldham CCG (£8,388.33).

Goldbart, J., Denovan, A., & Dagnall, N. (2020). Assessing ten years of Routes for Learning data. HPSC Manchester Metropolitan University (£2,410.20).

Dagnall, N., Denovan, A., & McGahan, J. (June 2019). What job fits me? Imperative Solutions Ltd. (£10,000).

Denovan, A., & Dagnall, N. (May 2019). Developing a new non-cognitive measure: Reconceptualising resource-based psychological constructs. HPSC Manchester Metropolitan University (£7,091).

Bial Research Fellowship (December 2006) “Paranormal Belief & Well Being: An Exploration of Cognitive-Perceptual Bias”

Bial Research Fellowship (December 2008) “The Effect of Paranormal Belief & Cognitive-Perceptual Factors on Mnemonic Performance: An Experimental Investigation” (40,000 Euros).

Bial Research Fellowship (December 2010) “Paranormal Belief, Evaluation of Paranormal Experiences, Schizotypy & Reality Testing”

Taylor, J., & Denovan, A. (June 2013). Time to put it into perspective: Developing a balanced time: Developing a balanced time perspective to promote student coping, engagement, and wellbeing. URF Teesside University (£5,000).

Macaskill, A., Bowles, D. B., & Denovan, A. (March 2008). Creating a 'can do' culture for students in Higher Education. Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning, Sheffield Hallam University (£6,000).

Dagnall, N., Denovan, A., & McGahan, J. (June 2019). What job fits me? Imperative Solutions Ltd. (£10,000).

Denovan, A., & Dagnall, N. (May 2019). Developing a new non-cognitive measure: Reconceptualising resource-based psychological constructs. HPSC Manchester Metropolitan University (£7,091).

 

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